Astronomy and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Maths) is the main focus of the project activities. Scientific and technological innovations have become more and more important in the 21st century and it is necessary to raise students’ skills of STEM higher and higher. As a result of all activities in the project student will gain: methods of workshops, researching, producing and examining and frontal results are creativity, cooperation, critical thinking and solving problems. The participants will take part into practical applications of robotic  technologies and space researches. Teachers will have their professional abilities improved as a result of exchanging knowledge with their colleagues in European partner schools. The project is conected with Erasmus+ project.

Curiosities about Astronomy


The play «Científicas: pasado, presente y futuro» («Women scientists: past, present and future») was premiered in march 2016 at the Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Informática at the University of Seville. Five lecturers and researchers – Isabel Fernández, María del Carmen Romero, Adela Muñoz, Clara Grima and María José Jiménez – performed the roles of Hypatia of Alexandria, Ada Lovelace, Marie Curie, Rosalind Franklin and Hedy Lamarr, respectively.

The idea had first been floated a few months before. Francisco Vega, a laboratory technician at the university, thought it would be good if his daughter and other girls had female role models in the world of science, so they wouldn’t feel that science was not for them just because they were girls, and he also wanted his son and other boys to learn about women in science. After all, scientific progress is achieved by all sorts of people, regardless of gender, age, race or nationality…

Although our play is in Spanish, we have a wonderful comic in english as well as other activities that you can download below. We hope you enjoy all of them… and learn a lot as well!

You can use these worksheet to present some famous scientists in your English class and then colour it.


You can use these posters to create and exhibition about women in science:

Dr. Hayat Sindi was born in Makkah, Saudi Arabia and is one of the world’s leading biotechnologists. She is the Founder and President of the i2 Institute and a co-founder of Diagnostics For All. She was ranked by Arabian Business magazine as the 19th most influential Arab in the world and the ninth most influential Arab woman. Sindi has a Ph.D. in biotechnology from Newnham College, Cambridge, which she obtained in 2001; she was the first Saudi woman to be accepted at Cambridge University to study the field of biotechnology, and the first woman from any of the Arab States of the Persian Gulf to complete a doctoral degree in the field.

Juliana Rotich is a technologist, strategic advisor, entrepreneur, and keynote speaker. She is co-founder of BRCK Inc, a hardware and services technology company based in Kenya. BRCK was formed to realise a vision for enabling communication in low infrastructure environments by developing useful, innovative technologies. Juliana also co-founded Ushahidi Inc., a non-profit tech company, which specialises in developing free and open source software for changing how information flows in the world.

Maria da Penha is a Brazilian biopharmacist and human rights defender. She advocates for women rights, particularly against domestic violence. When Maria da Penha was almost killed by her husband, there wasn’t a single police station she could go to in Brazil that specialised in violence against women. The case Maria filed languished in court for two decades, while her husband remained free. Years later, in a landmark ruling, the Court of Human Rights criticised the Brazilian government for not taking effective measures to prosecute and convict perpetrators of domestic violence. In response to this, the Brazilian government in 2006 enacted a law now known as the Maria da Penha Law on Domestic and Family Violence, which increased the severity of punishment for domestic violence against women, whenever it occurred in a domestic or family environment.

Tu Youyou is a Chinese pharmaceutical chemist and educator. She discovered artemisinin (also known as qinghaosu) and dihydroartemisinin, drugs used to treat malaria. Her discovery was a significant breakthrough in 20th-century tropical medicine, saving millions of lives around the world. For her work, Tu received the 2011 Lasker Award in clinical medicine and the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, jointly with William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura. She is the first Chinese Nobel Laureate in physiology or medicine, and the first female citizen of the People’s Republic of China to receive a Nobel Prize in any category. She is also the first Chinese person to receive the Lasker Award. Tu Youyou was born, educated and carried out her research exclusively in China.

Mae C. Jemison is an American engineer, physician and NASA astronaut. She became the first African American woman to travel in space when she went into orbit aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on September 12, 1992. She resigned from NASA in 1993 to found a company researching the application of technology to daily life. She has appeared on television several times, including as an actress in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation. She is a dancer and holds nine honorary doctorates in science, engineering, letters, and the humanities. She is the current principal of the 100 Year Starship organization.

Dr. Cynthia Breazeal is an Associate Professor of Media Arts and Sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where she founded and directs the Personal Robots Group at the Media Lab. She is also founder and Chief Scientist of Jibo, Inc. She is a pioneer of Social Robotics and Human Robot Interaction. She authored the book Designing Sociable Robots, and she has published over 100 peer-reviewed articles in journals and conferences on the topics of Autonomous Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Human Robot Interaction, and Robot Learning.

Gladys West is an American mathematician known for her contributions to the mathematics underpinning GPS. Her contributions to GPS were only uncovered when a member of her sorority, Alpha Kappa Alpha, read a short biography West had submitted for an alumni function.

Rosalind Franklin was a pioneer of the study of molecular structures receiving recognition among scientists for her research on the molecular structure of coal, viruses, and DNA. Her X-ray diffraction images of DNA enabled the University of Cambridge’s Francis Crick and James Watson to identify the molecule’s double helix structure. For years her work on the structure went unnoticed as only Crick, Watson and Franklin’s colleague Maurice Wilkins received the Nobel Prize for the discovery in 1962. In 2003 The Royal Society established the Rosalind Franklin Award to bring attention to outstanding work of women in STEM.

I leave here some links with videos, songs and games about Astronomy:


The binary alphabet-activity manual

Some robotic activities

Mad science

Building bridges

Experimenting with ozobots

Making electric circuits in 4th grade


Astro Stem reports:

We have been following an important astronomical event for over a month. On December 25, 2021, the Ariane 5 rocket launched the James Webb Telescope – the largest and most complex man-made telescope. This is one of the most important moments in the history of scientific space missions, because we are talking about an instrument that is to be a direct, „much better” successor to the Hubble Telescope. This, in turn, has provided us with pictures of various objects in the universe for over thirty years. The new telescope, after nearly a month’s journey, reached its final target located approximately 1.5 million km beyond the Earth on the Sun side. The stage of preparing delicate optics instruments for work has now begun. Scientists expect that the operation of this ultra-modern device will lead to amazing new discoveries in space. You can follow the mission on the website: or on our school magazines.

The photo on the left shows the Hubble telescope, and the Webb telescope on the right.

So there was another opportunity to explore astronomical knowledge. In the spring of 2021, students from our school carried out the school project MISSION MARS 2020. The task was to prepare information about the NASA project, which in February 2021 sent the largest and most advanced rover called Perseverance to Mars. Once again, our students showed ingenuity and proved their great curiosity about the world. Their presentations included news about the planet, the degree of mission implementation as well as current photos from Mars.

Objects in the Universe

– a continuation of Astronomy in our school

The „Objects in the Universe” mini-project as part of Astronomy innovations is a continuation of the tasks related to the Erasmus + project „Coding is Fun!” carried out in our school. The task was to find information, interesting facts on one of the following topics:

• Planets • Natural satellites • Artificial satellites • Stars • Galaxies • Clusters of galaxies • Nebulae • Black holes • Comets, asteroids, meteoroids • Space probes

The works were made in the form of posters with brief information texts,  photos and graphics of the objects.

See the gallery.

Congratulations to the 7th and 8th grade students and the ASTROSTEM club teachers!

Have fun with a 3D printer!

One day, new equipment appeared in our computer lab. The yellow-red device that resembles a cuboid is a 3D printer. The equipment was purchased by the school as part of the Erasmus + project "Coding is fun". During an extraordinary computer class lesson, students from the second grade were the first to see how this tool works and what its possibilities are. The imagination of our pupils and the way of thinking led to the correct analysis of the 3D printing method. Students had the opportunity to talk about their experiences with modern technologies and how to use them in everyday life. During the lesson, we printed a giraffe, a frog and a rabbit. The most involved students received souvenir printouts 😊 Soon we will present the possibilities of the 3D printer at an online meeting with partner schools from the "Coding is Fun!" project. We want to share our experiences and encourage to similar classes in schools in Belgium, Spain, Turkey and Portugal.

Autumn moon observations in Polish School

October was the month in which we implemented the educational project "Autumn Moon Phase Observations" at our school. The project is a part of the pedagogical innovation entitled "Elements of astronomy in Physics lessons as a part of the Astro Stem Club tasks from the Erasmus + project" implemented in grades 7th and 8th. Students were supposed  to observe how the appearance of our satellite changes in the following days of the month between the full moon. They recorded the results of their research in the observation journal, and when the Moon was invisible due to weather conditions, they used the Stellarium- web application. The project allowed students to understand the phenomenon of the moon phases and deepen their knowledge of astronomy. An additional attraction was the opportunity to observe a rare astronomical phenomenon at that time - the Blue Moon, which was last visible on such a scale 76 years ago. Thanks to the commitment and persistence of young people, we can now admire the effects of their months of efforts in the form of beautiful posters and presentations. It is an interesting and innovative project carried out in our school under the supervision of Mrs. Iwona Błądkowska and Anna Szydloch, who in an innovative way encourage students to discover the secrets of Astronomy.


Space games

Class 8 played with self made flashcards about space, solar system and English lesson.

What do we know about the Solar System?

Class 7 and 8 in English lessons explored The Milky Way, our Solar system, planets, stars. They checked their knowledge in quizes and tests about space: word searching, crosswords,"true and false". Maybe someone will become a rocket man? What planet do aliens live on? Had fun time and praciced movement of planets around the Sun...

Solar System

The Solar System in children's drawings.

Rocket and spacecraft design.

Who has not dreamed of traveling in space? And what if you can design your own space ship for such an amazing journey. The third grade showed ingenuity and creativity and here are the results. Colorful rockets ready for a journey of their dreams, a journey into the space. Are you ready? 🙂


COURSE 2021-2022


In 3rd Primary enjoy playing with liquids while learning to measure them.


4th grade students learn to measure masses, lengths and capacities using Stem Methodologies.


Curious and fun way in Maths class to work on the different types of angles. 4th Primary.


In 4th Primary they have been using STEM to work with decimal numbers.


Our little kids have prepared seed bombs to plant at home using clay, ground, seeds and egg cups.


Our little ones, 3 years old, play with water and learn that it has no shape, color, smell or taste. They also experiment which objects float and which sink. And when they finish they reuse the water used to water the trees and plants in our playground.

They have also made an experiment „the travelling water” to work the secondary colors „orange and green”.


In 3rd Primary they have learned fractions by manipulating and having fun.


2nd Primary students work on Geometry using the popular „Tangram” that promotes the development of both psychomotor and intellectual skills, in addition to working in a playful way.


In 1st Primary they have been learning about plants: each one has planted, watered and cared for their plants in class.


The 4-years-olds use the digital whiteboard in class for the first time carrying out mathematical logic activities, and they love it!!!


Our 5-years-old students work on attention, thinking, imitation and mathematical concepts such as numbers, colors, counting, spatial orientation, using the famous toy „POPIT”. Learning and playing at the same time.


Our 4-years-old students are working on the project „Castles” and they have created a video using Playmobil characters and Stop Motion.


In 6th Primary they have learned to interpret supermarket food labeling, focusing on the sugar they contain. They have brought to class products they usually eat to check the sugar they contain.


In 4th Primary they learnt about plants in science class, then they planted some seeds and watched them grow. To finish this workshop, they visited the nature class situated in „Molino Alto” which is a natural place. Here they participated in a gymkhana to find plants, then they observed the plants with microscopes and they pressed them to make a herbarium.


-In 2nd Primary they have been working with numbers (units, tens and hundreds).

-Our youngest children from the 3-years old class, have enjoyed playing with cars and doing races at the same time that they learned to count.


In 2nd Primary they have studied invertebrate animals using a prawn and a microscope.


In 4th Primary they have used the Bluebot in the English class to revise vocabulary.


In 4th Primary they have revised all they have learned about plants in Science.


In 2nd Primary they have learned HOW and WHY it’s usuful to preserve food. They have used cucumbers.


 In 3rd Primary they have learned many things about the pollination of insects and they have made a „hotel for insects” where they can take shelter.


During October in the English class of 3rd Primary we have been learning about the Solar System with different actvities:

– First we watched some videos and songs in English about the Planets.

– Then we found out the information of the QR codes we have in our doors about the planets using tablets.

– We did different activities: coloring by adding and subtracting, craft, planet scramble, word search, bookmarks,

– We finished playing with the bluebots. 


4th Primary students have been in the playground to study, understand and observe the greenhouse effect. They have used two glasses with ice-cubes, one of then covered with a plastic. After a while they have seen that the ice-cubes in the glass without plastic had melted and the ones with the plastic were still solid, that is what happens in the Earth thanks to our atmosphere.


Kahoot! is a game-based learning platform used as educational technology. Its learning games, „kahoots”, are user-generated multiple-choice quizzes that can be acceseed via a web browser or the Kahoot app. Kahoot! can be used to review students’ knowledge, for formative assessment, or as a break from traditional classroom activities.

   Children from 6th Primary have reviewed Geography in a group competition using tablets and Kahoot!


After the visit of the Erasmus teacher to the Science Museum in Valencia we decided to go there with our oldest students. So, 6th Primary children have gone to the Science Museum to participate in different workshops:

– „Cold, cold” which has to do with temperatures, pressure, nitrogene.

– „High voltage” which has to do with electricity.

– „Insects” which has to do with curiosities of these animals.

They also watched a 3D film about dinosaurs in the Planetarium.

They had a fantastic STEM day.

COURSE 2020-2021


In 3rd Primary they have been learning about the different types of simple machines and as a final task they had to built one at home with the help of their families.


Our older students have prepared fantastic models using electric and magnetic circuits. They have used their imagination.

In 5th Primary they have spent the last week of this course making electric circuits in groups, first all the groups made a simple one just to make a mini-light bulb work. Then they could make different circuits using different materials, most of them made board games to join questions and answers. Amazing!!!


In Arts and Crafts class our children have tried to reproduce the Brussels „Atomium” with some interesting models.


Our little children have attended to an online play about the space „To the sun that warms the most” offered by the Madrid Planetarium.


In 4th Primary, learning about the simple machines, they have built amazing catapults usings wooden sticks, rubber bands and bottle caps. They have enjoyed a lot!!

They have also built scales reusing materials they brought from home.


 6th The 4 and 5 year old children and the 1st and 2nd Primary students have participated in one of the online activities organized by the Madrid Planetarium to bring it closer to schools: „Children’s workshop: Playing with the moon”. They have learned many things about our satellite: its phases, how to make lunar soil, what happens when a meteor hits the Moon, trips to the Moon,… At the end they have been able to ask questions about everything seen. It has been great!!!!

   After the workshop and with the English teacher, 2nd primary children have gone to visit our big mural about the 50th anniversary of the 1st trip to the Moon, there, they have discovered the QR codes that we have on the mural. Then they have been in our AstroStem Club to see all the materials we have done related to the Moon and they have enjoyed with our rocket and our space photocall.


6th Primary children have been learning about famous scientists and inventors in English class. And as a final task they had to create posters about them to make a big one for the school.


 In 3rd Primary have made interesting solar systems using a plastic plate.


6th Primary students have participated in two online workshops where they have learned to make nanoparticles and obtain DNA. Two scientists have helped them.


4-year-olds- discover forest animals with their magic lanterns.


Plickers is a tool for teachers that allows you to create a battery of questions and launch them in class to obtain in real time an evaluation of your students or a survey of their answers. For this, the students only need cards with QR codes that identify each student and that, when shown in class in one position or another,give an answer to the question asked by the teacher. The cards with the QR codes have on each side a letter (A,B,C,D) which are the possible answer options. To answer one of the options the students only have to turn the card until they place the answer option they consider correct at the top, lift the card and show it to the teacher, who with the mobile application of the tool quickly scans the QR codes of all students and immediately records the answers and evaluations. In addition, on the computer screen you can show the list of students who have answered and even who have answered correctly and who have not.

In 4th Primary the have used Plickers to revise what they have learned in History class.

In 5th Primary they have used this tool to revised the verbs in Spanish class.


In 4th Primary they have learned how to separate substances.
They have also been learning about capacities measures using different types of jugs and containers. Learning by doing.
Another activity they have done has to do with reflection, refraction and light effects.
In 1st Pre-Primary they have made the activity „Is it magic or science?”. With some markers, a paper towel and some water the teacher has made it appears the rainbow… In this link you can see the activity:


Nowadays QR codes are all around us, in restaurants, shops, museums,.. so, we are trying to make our school more interactive and we have decided to use QR codes in different places and activities for our students to become familiar with this new digital tool:

 23rd April „Book Day”: one of the activities we have done to celebrate this day has been that in 5th Primary they have been „booktubers” for one day, they have recorded videos to recommend their favourite book. Then we have created QR codes that we have put in our hall poster „Our Tree of books”.


All our doors and displays around school are decorated with things about Astronomy, and now we have added QR codes to make them interactive. You can find videos, songs or interesting facts about Astronomy.

We have added QR codes to our posters of „Women in Science” that are all around the school. Children will use the school tablets to discover the information of each woman.

In 1st and 2nd Primary they have prepared a card for Father’s Day (19th March) with a QR code. With this activity we also involve families in our work.

In 1st Pre-Primary, our 3 years old children have used QR-codes to find out about their pets. This activity is included in their project „Our Pets”.


In 3rd Primary they review the different Phases in History using a BeeBot and coding the way it must follow.

6th Primary students have reviewed irregular verbs in the English class using the BlueBot robot.

In English class with 1st Primary we have used our Bluebots to rewiew the Easter vocabulary we have learned.

Using the Beebot In English class with 1st Primary to rewiew the St. Patrick’s day vocabulary we have learned.

In 1st Pre-Primary, our 3 years old children have used Blubots to find out about their pets.

In 1st Primary they have used the Beebots to revise vocabulary and Maths.


Our 6th Primary students have attended a conference by a member of the Nasa Perseverance science team, it has been broadcast in live streaming from the Youtube channel of the Madrid Planetarium. Very interesting.


 Our five years old children have learned geometric shapes in English on their digital board.


 In 3rd Primary they had to learn „the fractions” and their teacher has used chocolate bars to teach them. She hands out squares of bar chocolate and at the same time that they learn they eat. The children love this activity!!!


We have been able to see in our classes the partial eclipse of the sun thanks to the observatory in Madrid Planetarium. It has been very interesting!!!


Our Pre-Primary teacher Sonia, has prepared this fantastic presentation about the Solar System using „GENIALLY”.


In 1st Primary have been learning geometric forms with plasticine and sticks. Interesting!!!


We have dedicated the first two weeks of February to preparing activities to make our students aware of the important and sometimes forgotten role of women in all fields of Science throughout history.

We have seen videos, plays, books and activities that many organizations and institutions have promoted to commemorate this day. We have also had interviews, workshops and online talks with different scientist women.

We have culminated our celebrations with the creation of the „Tree of Science” where each student have placed a card with the image of a scientist woman, the older ones have also written information about the scientist on their cards that they had to find out at home with the help of their families. So, all the members of our educational community have participated in the activities.


The five-year-olds have learned to make ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. 


4th Primary children have built funny respiratory systems in Science class. 


1st Primary students reviewing units and tens in Maths class.

They have also practise sizes (small, medium, large) to make hearts with peace messages to form a tree on Peace Day..


Our little children from 1st Pre-Primary have learned the meaning of each of the letters that make up „STEAM”. They have linked each letter with their names.


In 2nd Primary after being studing our planet they have made fantastic lapbooks with many interesting information about The Earth.Our little children from 1st Pre-Primary have learnt to make artificial snow. They have enjoyed a lot!!!


Children from 2nd Primary have been learning about the Earth. Then each one made a lapbook with all the information they had studied: Earth movements, The Moon, countries and oceans, seasons, day and night...


Next December 21st, what is known as a great conjunction of the planets Jupiter and Saturn will occur, an astronomic phenomenon that can be seen at a simple view in a southwest direction over the horizon at low height. Between December 16th and 21st, you will be able to observe an photograph this phenomenon which has not occured since Middle Ages. During those nights, the two planets will be aligned in such a way that it will seem that the form a "double" planet. This phenomenon will not be observed again for 80 years because it takes a year for the Earth to turn the sun, Jupiter takes 12 years and Saturn 30 years.


As our Polish colleagues did in October, we have chosen December for the students to observe the changes that the Moon made. Then they had to prepare a work about it at home with the help of their families. We have received fantastic posters, models, descriptions..
We have decorated our "AstroStem Club" with all the works and all classes will visit this exhibition.


Up to 70 meteors per hour could be seen next Sunday, December 13th, as there will be no Moon in the sky to interfere with the view.

Meteorites are small fragments of interplanetary debris that burn up in Earth's atmosphere. They come at high speeds, in the case of the Geminids 130,000 kilometers per hour. Friction with the upper atmosphere rapidly heats incoming debris, the air around it glows brightly, and the particles are rapidly destroyed. The resulting ray of light is what we see from the ground as a meteor or "shooting star."

Meteors in the next shower can appear anywhere in the sky, but their trails appear to originate in the constellation Gemini, hence the name Geminids. These meteors appear to move quite slowly and can be intense in color.


We have dedicated the last week before Christmas to participate in four on-line Astronomy Workshops organized by the "Astronomical Observatory of Valencia University". Children from 3rd and 4th Primary did the workshop "Discover your Solar System - Astrocircle". They learnt many interesting things about the Sun and the Planets and they built an Astrocirle.

Children from 5th and 6th Primary did the workshop "Learning about your sky.Orientation and Constellations". They have learnt to orient themselves by looking at the sky, they have also built the Ursa Major and Ursa Minor with the Pole Star, and they have discovered many others constellations.


Our children from 1st Primary have been playing the piano using spoons with "Croc&Play" and they have also built ukeles. A fantastic combination of fun, music and technology.


Our children from 5th and 6th grade have been participating in a "virtual scape-room". Science Week is considered the largest social communication event of science and technology held in Spain (November 2nd-15th). From the Science and Technology Park in Albacete they organized a “Escape STEM” activity, fostering interest and sensitivity around science, technology and innovation. Due to exceptional circumstances this year, marked by COVID-19, all activities have been developed in virtual format: "virtual escape-room" through a platform that allows students to work in an interdisciplinary way and offer them an exciting approach to the world of knowledge. Every day children had to work with various topics related to Science Week, STEM Challenges and ODS (Sustainable Development Goals). The challenges contain questions, secret and coded messages and puzzles of visual acuity that took them to the resolution of the great enigma of the mission.


Children build rockets at the same time that they are revising Geometry.

COURSE 2019-20

(2nd course Pre-Primary)

(3rd course Pre-Primary)

Children build rockets at the same time that they are revising Geometry.

(2nd course Primary)

(2nd course Primary)

Children have created a piano using spoons with „Croc&Play” and a laptop.

(3rd course Pre-Primary)


(2nd course Pre-Primary)
Children have made a model of The Earth to see day and night.

(Pre-Primary and 1st cycle Primary)

(5th Primary)
Children have searched their Zodiac Sign Constellation to build them.


February 13th was a special day in our school. The Association of Astronomy and Astrophoto from Almansa "@astroalmansa" were with us, first to give a lesson about The Sun to each class and then we could observe it through the solar telescope that members of this association installed in our playground. It was a wonderful experience and everybody really enjoyed it. The Sun was spectacular through the telescope.


Thanks to our second level of Pre-Primary kids and their teacher we have a fabolous photocall where anybody can be an astronaut or fly a spaceship. THANKS SONIA AND YOUR KIDS!!!!!

(5th PRIMARY and 2nd Pre-PRIMARY)

After studying the Solar System in Geography, children in groups of three or four had to make a model of it. They could use whatever the wanted and they had to do it at home with the help of their parents in order to involve families in this project.
Then at school, each group had to present their model first to the class and then to the rest of the classes explaining how they made the models, the materials they uses and a short presentation of The Solar System.
Our four years old children have also done models of the Solar System with plasticine.


At the same time that children are learning about the importance of reusing materials to care for our Planet they are going to create robots. They bring from home materials such as plastic bottles, boxes, papers, plastic containers, caps, tetrabriks... Then in groups of three or four, taking into account their materials, first they design their robots and then they build them.


With just a cardboard box, some aluminum foil and black paint you can create a solar oven!!!!!!!! You only have to paint the box in black and then put aluminum foil on the inside of the box lid.


At the same time that the children are learning about the different kinds of energy sources, they have built solar cars.



The objective of this STEAM day was essentially to discover and share concepts and new apprentices with the children, parents and teachers of the institution . We had the opportunity to observe , experiment and discussideas and themes in the areas of science, thecnology , engineering, translating throught art and explaining trhought mathematics. Some exemples: